Beyond the margins: real-time detection of cancer using targeted fluorophores
Ray R. Zhang, Alexandra B. Schroeder, Joseph J. Grudzinski, Eben L. Rosenthal, Jason M. Warram, Anatoly N. Pinchuk, Kevin W. Eliceiri, John S. Kuo & Jamey P. Weichert
Published online: 17 January 2017 | doi:10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.212
Intraoperative fluorescence enables highly specific real-time detection of tumours at the time of surgery. In particular, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a promising tool currently being tested in clinical settings. Zhang et al. discuss the latest developments in NIR fluorophores, cancer-targeting strategies, and detection instrumentation for intraoperative cancer detection, as well as the challenges associated with their effective application in clinical settings.