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Cerebrovascular Laboratory          |          Neuroanatomy / Skull Base Laboratory


Research Interests



  • Angiogenesis and neurogenesis in focal cerebral ischemia
  • Intinsic anatomy of the brain
  • Neuroanatomy and skull base anatomy
  • Predictors of poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage and vasospasm
  • Predictors of outcome after resection of atypical menengiomas
  • Neuropsychological outcomes after treatment of intracranial aneurysms.


Personnel



 

Current Trainees

Training Period

Prior Academic Degree

Current Position

Ulaş CIKLA

June 1st, 2012- ~

Neurosurgeon

Scientist

Abdülbaki Kozan

June 17th, 2014- ~

Neurosurgeon

Research Fellow

Cem Dinç

August 1st, 2016- ~

Associate Professor of Neurosurgery

Research Fellow & Clinical Observer

Sima Sayyahmelli

September 1st, 2016- ~

Neurosurgeon

Research Fellow & Clinical Observer

Pınar OCAK

September 30th, 2016- ~

Neurosurgeon

Research Fellow & Clinical Observer

Umut OCAK

September 30th, 2016- ~

Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine

Research Fellow & Clinical Observer

İhsan Doğan

January 23rd, 2017- ~

Instructor Neurosurgery

Research Fellow & Clinical Observer

 

 

Past Trainees

Training Period

Prior Academic Degree

Current Position

Yusuf İzci

Sep 1st, 2006- Sep 1st 2007

Instructor Neurosurgeon

Prof. of Neurosurgery

Özkan Ateş

Apr 2007- Oct 2007

Instructor Neurosurgeon

Prof. of Neurosurgery

Hakan Seçkin

Feb 4th, 2008- Aug 31th, 2008

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Emel Avcı

May 15th, 2008- Aug 15th, 2008

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Prof. of Neurosurgery

Kutluay Uluç

Jun 1st, 2008- Apr 30th, 2011

MD

Neurosurgery Resident at UW Madison

İlkan Tatar

May 19th, 2009- Sep 18th, 2009

MD

Assoc. Prof. of Anatomy

Erhan Türkoğlu

Jul 2009- Jan 2010

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Hayri Kertmen

Jul 2009- Jan 2010

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Erinç Aktüre

Nov 1st, 2009- Oct 31st, 2012

MD

Neurosurgery Resident at University of Vermont

Karthikeyan Perumal

 

Sep 1st, 2010- Nov 30th, 2010

MS

MD/ Radiation Oncology

Erkin Özgiray

Oct 25th, 2010- Sep 30th, 2011

Instructor Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Tomer Hananya

 

2010-2012

Undergraduate

MS in Israel

Veysel Antar

Jan 6th, 2011- Jan 5th , 2013

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Almaz Kurbanov

Apr 1st, 2011- Jun 30th, 2011

MD

Surgery Resident at Texas Tech University

Melih Bozkurt

Aug 1st, 2011- Aug 15th, 2012

Instructor Neurosurgery

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Kanaklakshmi Masodkar

 

Sep15th, 2011- Jan 15th, 2012

MD

Psychiatry Resident at Texas Tech University

Suat Canbay

Oct 10th, 2011- Jan 10th, 2012

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Gabriel Neves

 

2012- 2014

Undergraduate

MS at Duke University

Ulaş CIKLA

Jun 1st, 2012- May 31st, 2013

Neurosurgeon

Scientist at UW Madison

Ahmet Özen

Jun 20th, 2012- Aug 20th, 2012

MS

MD

Bora Gürer

Sep 1st, 2012- Apr 30th, 2013

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Mehmet Ekici

Oct 4th, 2012- Mar 8th, 2013

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Collin Liu

Jun 6th, 2013- Aug 11th, 2013

MS

Neurosurgery Resident at University of Nebraska

Seyit Kağan Başarslan

Jun 15th, 2013- Aug 15th, 2013

MS

MD

Abdullah Keleş

Jun 30th, 2013- Aug 30th, 2013

MS

MD

Damla Özmen

Jul 1st, 2013- Aug 1st, 2013

MD

MD

Şanser Gül

Jul 1st, 2013- Oct 1st, 2013

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Enes Efendioğlu

Jul 6th, 2013- Aug 4th, 2013

MS

MD

Angela Hanel Antoniazzi

Sep 30th, 2013- Jun 30th, 2014

MS

MD

Tevfik Yılmaz

Oct 1st, 2013- Sep 1st, 2014

Neurosurgeon

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Göktuğ Akyoldaş

2013

MS

MD

Güner Menekşe

Jan 6th, 2014- Apr 6th, 2014

Neurosurgeon

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Mehmet Emre Günaydın

Jan 15th, 2014- Jan 15th, 2015

MD

MD

Alice Kirst

Mar 5th, 2014- Jul 31th, 2015

Undergraduate

Undergraduate

Alireza Sadighi

Mar 26th, 2014- Mar 25th, 2015

MD

MD

Onur Açış

Jun 25th, 2014- Aug 20th, 2014

MS

MS

Zeynep Kutlu

Jun 25th, 2014- Jul 25th, 2014

MS

MD

Nazan Akkaya

Jul 15th, 2014- Aug 13th, 2014

MS

MD

Mehmet Önen

Oct 1st, 2014- Mar 31st, 2015

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Abdullah Karakoç

Oct 1st, 2014- Apr 1st, 2015

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Joshgun Mammadov

Dec 1st, 2014- May 31st, 2015

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Ahmed Halal

Mar 1st, 2015- Apr 30th, 2015

MS

Neurosurgery Resident at University of Alexandria in Egypt

Arman Quraishi

Apr 10th, 2015- Apr 24th, 2015

Undergraduate

MS at University of Minnesota

Pınar Aydın

May 11th, 2015- Jun 10th, 2015

Neurosurgery Resident

Neurosurgeon

J. Srisaravanan

May 25th, 2015- Jun 12th, 2015

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Prof. of Neurosurgery at Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. University in India

Hüseyin Özevren

Jun 1st, 2015- Jul 31th, 2015

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Assoc. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Çağın Hüryol

Jun 15th, 2015- Jul 15th, 2015

MS

MS

Melih Eröksüz

Jun 20th, 2015- Aug 25th, 2015

MS

MS

Hatice Koç

Jun 23rd, 2015- Sep 19th, 2015

MS

MD

Ahmet Yasin Yitik

Jun 29th, 2015- Aug 30th, 2015

MS

MS

Deniz Morkan

Jul 31th, 2015- Aug 29th, 2015

MS

MD

Neşe Keser

Aug 1st, 2015- Nov 1st, 2015

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Abdulfettah Tümtürk

Aug 28th, 2015- Nov 30th, 2015

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Dila Zafer

Oct 14th, 2015- Nov 14th, 2015

Neurosurgery Resident

Research Fellow

Yahya Turan

Oct 15th, 2015- Oct 15th, 2016

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Nural Çelik

Nov 1st, 2015- Oct 31th, 2016

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Burçak Söylemez

Nov 1st, 2015- Oct 31th, 2016

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Rauf Nasirov

Dec 1st, 2015- Jan 31th, 2016

Neurosurgery Resident

Neurosurgeon

Azze Ngo

Dec 12th, 2015- Jan 1st, 2016

Undergraduate

Undergraduate

Chazz Bracey

2015

Undergraduate

Undergraduate

Nickolas De Oliveira

Mar 28th, 2016- Aug 19th, 2016

High School

Undergraduate

İlhan Aydın

Mar 29th, 2016- Sep 29th, 2016

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Berkhan Genç

Apr 1st, 2016- Apr 30th, 2016

MS

MS

Halil Olgün Peker

Jun 1st, 2016- Dec 1st, 2016

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Derya Karataş

Jun 4th, 2016- Jun 24th, 2016

Neurosurgery Resident

Neurosurgery Resident

Mahmut Salih Genç

Jun 12th, 2016- Aug 20th, 2016

MS

MS

İsmail Gülşen

Jul 1st, 2016- Aug 1st, 2016

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Asst. Prof. of Neurosurgery

Özde Bilici

Jul 4th, 2016- Jul 29th, 2016

MS

MS

Yiğit Ünlü

Jul 8th, 2016- Aug 21th, 2016

MS

MS

Alperen Şirin

Aug 2nd, 2016- Sep 27th, 2016

MS

MS

Ömer Özdemir

Sep 1st, 2016- Oct 31st, 2016

Neurosurgery Resident

Consultant Neurosurgeon

Şahin Hanalioğlu

Sep 15th, 2016- Nov 15th, 2016

Neurosurgeon

Neurosurgeon

Balkan Şahin

Sep 15th, 2016- Feb 14th, 2017

Neurosurgery Resident

Neurosurgeon

 



Grants



  • University of Wisconsin Medical School start up funds
    (1/2006-09)


Recent Research Publications



  • Nickele C, Akture E, Gubbels S, Baskaya MK. A stepwise illustration of the translabyrinthine approach to a large cystic vestibular schwannoma.  Neurosurgical Focus Sep; 33(3):E11, 2012
  • Akture E, Salamat MS, Baskaya MK. Intracranial blastomycosis presenting as an enhancing cerebellopontine angle mass. Turkish Neurosurgery 23(2)252-255, 2013.
  •  Miranpuri A, Akture E, Baggot C, Miranpuri A, Uluc K, Gunes E, Lin Y, Niemann D, Baskaya MK. Demographic, circadian and climatic factors in aneurysmal versus non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: 384 cases from Midwestern US. Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery 11(3):298-303, 2013
  • Nickele C, Amgad H, Baskaya MK. Osteotomy for laminoplasty without soft tissue penetration, performed using Harmonic bone scalpel. Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A : Central European Neurosurgery 74(3):183-186, 2013
  • Ozgiray E, Akture E, Patel N, Baggot C, Bozkurt M, Niemann D, Baskaya MK. How reliable and accurate is Indocyanine green video angiography in the evaluation of aneurysm obliteration? Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 115:870-878, 2013.
  • Figueiredo N, Brooks N, Hanna A, Baskaya MK, Trost GR, Resnick D. Intraspinal ependymomas: case series study of myxopapillary and intramedullary ependymomas. Chirurgia 26:101-110, 2013
  • Lake W, Chang J, Kennedy T, Salamat MS, Baskaya MK. A case series of primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: Imaging and clinical characteristics. Neurosurgery 72(6):960-970, 2013.
  • Gürer B, Bozkurt M, Neves G, Cıkla U, Hananya T, Antar V, Salamat S, Başkaya MK. Subparietal and parietooccipital sulci: An anatomical study. Clinical Anatomy 26(6):667-674, 2013
  • Canbay S, Gurer B, Bozkurt M, Baskaya MK. Anatomical relationship and positions of the lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord according to the vertebral bodies and spinal roots. Clinical Anatomy 27(2):227-233, 2014.
  •  Gurer B, Canbay S, Bozkurt M, Cikla U, Hananya T, Okut H, Baskaya MK. Microsurgical anatomy of the denticulate ligaments and their relationship with the axilla of the spinal nerve roots. Clinical Anatomy 27:733-737, 2014.
  • Gurer B, Antar V, Cikla U, Bauer A, Baskaya MK. Intraoperative assessment of the posterior communicating artery and its branches by indocyanine-green videoangiography. Surgical Neurology International Sept 25;4:122, 2013.
  • Anderson BM, Khuntia D, Bentzen SM, Geye HM, Hayes LL, Kuo JS, Baskaya MK, Badie B, Basavatia A, Pyle GM, Tome WA, Mehta MP. Single institution experience treating 100 vestibular schwannomas with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Journal of Neurooncology 16(1):187-193, 2014.
  • Dağtekin A, Avcı E, Uzmansel D, Kurtoglu Z, Kara E, Uluç K, Aktüre E, Başkaya MK. Revisiting the regional microsurgical anatomy and variations of the anterior clinoid process in relation to supra- and parasellar lesions.Turkish Neurosurgery 24(4):484-493, 2014  
  • Cikla U, Kujoth GC, Baskaya MK. A stepwise illustration of the retrosigmoid approach for resection of a cerebellopontine angle meningioma. Neurosurgical Focus Jan:36 (1 Suppl):1, 2014
  • Motzkin JC, Philippi CL, Baskaya MK, Koenigs M. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the regulation of amygdala activity in humans. Biological Psychiatry Feb 26. pii:S0006-3223 (14)00109-7, 2014.
  • Cikla U, Giampietro PF, Sadighi A, Baskaya MK. Ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm associated with Aarskog syndrome. Neurologia Medico-chirurgica (in press).
  •  Kertmen H, Gurer B, Turkoglu E, Uluc K, Cikla U, Salamat S, Baskaya MK. The determination and comparison of the vascular configurations of the posterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries by two different techniques. Journal of Neurosurgical Science (in press).
  • Cikla U, Sadighi A, Bauer A, Baskaya MK. Fatal ruptured blood blister-like aneurysms of middle cerebral artery associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIII (periodontitis type). Journal of Neurological Surgery-Reports 75:e210-e213, 2014.
  • Turkoglu E, Seckin H, Ahmed A, Uluc K, Pulfer K, Arat A, Niemann D, Baskaya MK. Cadaveric perfusion and angiography as a teaching tool: imaging the intracranial vasculature in cadavers. Journal of Neurological Surgery - Skull Base 75:435-444, 2014  
  • Motzkin JC, Philippi C, Wolf RC, Baskaya MK, and Koenigs M. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions alter neural and physiological correlates of anticipation. Journal of Neuroscience Jul. 30;34(31):10430-10437, 2014
  • Cikla U, Baggott C, Baskaya MK. How I do it: Treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery by extracranial to intracranial bypass and trapping. Acta Neurochirurgica 156(11);2071-2077, 2014
  • Cıkla U, Aagaard Kienitz B, Niemann DB, Turski PA,  MD1Başkaya MK.Familial Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Association or coincidence? Case report.  Journal of Medical Case Reports. Nov. 22;8:380, 2014Cikla U, Baggot C, Baskaya MK. Gross total resection of large cervical intramedullary ependymoma: Demonstration of microsurgical techniques. Turkish Neurosurgery 24(5):763-764, 2014.
  • Yoon H, Mehta MP, Perumal K, Helenowski IB, Chappell RJ, Akture E, Lin Y, Marymont MH, Sejpal S, Parsa A, Chandler J, Bendok BR,  Rosenow J, Salamat S,  Kumthekar P, Raizer J, Baskaya MK. Atypical meningioma: randomized trials are required to resolve contradictory retrospective results regarding the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 11(1):59-66, 2015
  • Cikla U, Uluc K, Baskaya MK. Clip reconstruction of an 8 cm giant internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm: Microsurgical technique. Neurosurgical Focus Jan; 38(VideoSuppl 1);Video 20, 2015.
  •  Andreoli MJ, Nadkarni TN, Nair VA, Yin P, Young B, Kundu B, Pankratz J, Radtke A, Holdsworth R, Kuo JS, Field AS, Baskaya MK, Moritz CH, Meyerand MA, Prabhakaran V. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in tumor and vascular lesion patients: task and statistical threshold effects on language literalization.  Neuroimage: Clinical 24;7:415-423, 2014         
  • Turkoglu E, Kertmen H, Uluc K, Akture E, Gurer B, Cikla U, Salamat S, Baskaya MK. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior median septum of the human spinal cord. Clinical Anatomy Jan. 28(1):45-51, 2015.
  • Li Y, Ulas C, Baggot C, Baskaya MK. Surgical treatment of  adult moyamoya disease with combined STA-MCA bypass and EDAS: Demonstration of technique in video presentation. Turkish Neurosurgery 25(1):126-131, 2015
  •  Cikla U, Li Y, Duran SH , Kozan A, Baskaya MK. Treatment of Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurym with Extracranial-to-Intracranial Bypass and Trapping: Demonstration of Technique with Video Presentation. Turkish Neurosurgery (in press)
  • Motzkin JC, Philippi C, Oler JA, Kalin NH, Baskaya MK, and Koenigs M. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Cortex 64:281-288, 2015.
  • Liu CY, Baskaya MK. The Congress of Neurological Surgeons InternationalDivision 2014. Clinical Neurosurgery. Aug Suppl 1:79-80, 2015.
  • Sandoval-Garcia C, Royalty K, Yang P, Niemann DB, Ahmed A, Aagaard-Kienitz B, Baskaya MK, Schafer S, Strother C. 4D DSA a New Technique for AVM Evaluation and Treatment Planning. Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery (in press)
  •  Garg RK, Lee KS, Kohn SC, Baskaya MK, Afifi AM. Can ultrasound distinguish a supraorbital notch from a foramen? Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (in press)
  • Yilmaz T, Cikla U, KirstA, Baskaya MK. Gliablastoma multiforme in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. Case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports Apr 17;9:83, 2015
  • Cikla U, Uluc K, Baskaya MK.  Microsurgical clipping of a giant vertebrobasilar  junction aneurysm under hypothermic circulatory arrest. Neurosurgical Focus July 39 (Videosuppl1):V13, 2015.
  •  Cıkla U, Yılmaz T, Li Y, Baskaya MK. Clip Reconstruction of Giant Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm: 3-Dimensional Operative Video. Operative Neurosurgery Sept;11 Supll 3:463, 2015
  • Ekici MA, Cıkla U, Bauer A, Başkaya MK. Osteopetrosis and Chiari type I malformation: a rare association. Journal of Surgical Case Reports (in press).
  •  Yilmaz T, Cikla U, Baskaya MK. Microsurgical treatment of thalamic cavernous malformation: 3 Dimensional Operative Video. Operative Neurosurgery (in press).
  • Garg RK, Poore SO, Wieland AM, Sanchez R, Baskaya MK, Hartig GK. Recipient vessel selection in the difficult neck: outcomes of external carotid artery transposition and end-to-end microvascular anastomosis.  Microsurgery (in press).
  • Mammadov J, Li Y, Cikla U, Hanna R, Baskaya MK. Cerebral vasospasm: Part I – Pathogenesis. Contemporary Neurosurgery 37 (9): 1-4, 2015.
  • Li Y, Cikla U, Mammadov J, Hanna R, Baskaya MK. Cerebral vasospasm: Part II – Diagnosis and treatment. Contemporary Neurosurgery 37(10):1-8, 2015.
  • Kujoth GC, Neves GF, Cıkla U, Aktüre E, Uluç K, Song C, Hananya T, Sadighi A, Ferrazzano P, Başkaya MK. Monitoring ischemic cerebral injury in hypertensive rats by diffusion tensor imaging. Turkish Neurosurgery (in press)       
  • Swanson K, Cikla U, Uluc K, Baskaya MK. Supracerebellar transtentorial approach to the tentorial incisura and beyond. Neurosurgical Focus (in press).                                              
  • Pujara MS, Wolf RC, Baskaya MK, Koenigs M. Ventromedial prefontal cortex damage alters relative risk tolerance for prospective gains and losses. Neuropsychologia 79:70-75, 2015

 

     


    Submitted Papers



     

    • Ekici MA, Cıkla U, Bauer A, Başkaya MK. Osteopetrosis and Chiari type I malformation: a rare association. (submitted to Journal of Surgical Case Reports).                               
    • Kujoth GC, Neves GF, Cıkla U, Aktüre E, Uluç K, Song C, Hananya T, Sadighi A, Ferrazzano P, Başkaya MK. Monitoring ischemic cerebral injury in hypertensive rats by diffusion tensor imaging. (submitted to Brain Research)      
    • Yilmaz T, Cikla U, Maternowski A, Baskaya MK. Gliablastoma multiforme in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. Case report. (submitted to Journal of Medical Case Reports).
    • Andreoli MJ, Nadkarni TN, Nair VA, Yin P, Young B, Kundu B, Pankratz J, Radtke A, Holdsworth R, Kuo JS, Field AS, Baskaya MK, Moritz CH, Meyerand MA, Prabhakaran V. Usage of fMRI for pre-surgical planning in tumor and vascular lesion patients: task and statistical threshold effects on language literalization. (Submitted to AJNR)            
    • Sandoval-Garcia C, Royalty K, Yang P, Niemann DB, Ahmed A, Aagaard-Kienitz B, Baskaya MK, Schafer S, Strother C. 4D DSA a New Technique for AVM Evaluation and Treatment Planning. (submitted to Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery)
    • Motzkin JC, Philippi C, Oler JA, Kalin NH, Baskaya MK, and Koenigs M. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. (submitted to Cortex).
    • Cikla U, Li Y, Duran SH , Kozan A, Baskaya MK. Treatment of Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurym with Extracranial-to-Intracranial Bypass and Trapping: Demonstration of Technique with Video Presentation (submitted to Turkish Neurosurgery). 
    • Cikla U, Uluc K, Baskaya MK.  Microsurgical clipping of a giant vertebrobasilar  junction aneurysm under hypothermic circulatory arrest (submitted to Neurosurgical Focus).
    • Uluc K, Cikla U, Baskaya MK. Double Barrel bypass (STA-MCA) and trapping of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery. (submitted to Neurosurgical Focus)


    Cerebrovascular Laboratory



    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. population, particularly among aged individuals. Current demographic projections suggest that as the elderly population continues to expand, the need for developing improved treatment options for stroke patients will become even more pressing. Our lab is interested in the molecular events that occur during focal ischemia and in the use of stem cell approaches to improving neurological outcomes following stroke. Our main experimental model involves middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to generate focal ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
    Over the past several years, we have differentiated green fluorescent protein-expressing human embryonic stem cells (GFP-hESC) into mesenchymal stem cell-like cells (eMSCs). These eMSCs expressed markers (CD-29, CD-44, CD-73, CD-105, CD-166 and Nestin, but not CD-34, C45, CD-106, SSEA-4 or Oct-4) which are consistent with a mesenchymal stem cell state. We have transplanted eMSCs into the femoral veins of SHRs following MCAO. The expression of GFP allows us to follow the migration and further differentiation of the eMSCs in the ischemic brain. We observed migration of the injected eMSCs to the infarction region (Fig. 1) and their subsequent differentiation into neurons (which expressed β-tubulin III, MAP2, HuC and neurofilament) (see Fig. 2) and vascular endothelial cells (which expressed vWF; see Fig. 3). The grafted cells do not appear to differentiate into astrocytes.


    Figure 1: Human ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) expressing green fluorescent protein were injected into the femoral vein of rats two days after induction of stroke via middle cerebral artery occlusion. Injected eMSCs migrated to the brain and were found not only in the infarction core (A), but also in the ischemic penumbra as well as remote regions such as cortex and striatum (B, C, D).  eMSCs did not migrate to the contralateral hemisphere (E, F). No GFP-positive cells were observed in the infarction (G) or penumbra (H) regions of PBS-injected control rats.

     

     


     

    Figure 2: A subset of transplanted eMSCs (staining positive for GFP and human nuclear antigen) showed evidence of neuronal differentiation (indicated by b tubulin III staining in "Neural Marker" panel) in triple-stained brain sections from the ischemic infarction region two days after injection. Arrows indicate triple-stained cells. (Bar=100µm).

     

     

     

     

     

     


     

    Figure 3: A subset of transplanted eMSCs (GFP+) showed expression of the endothelial cell marker, von Wildebrand factor (vWF) by 1 week after injection. At 2 weeks, vWF and GFP double-positive cells were observed to form vascular channels. White arrows indicate co-localization of GFP and vWF at 1 week and 2 weeks after transplantation. (Bar=100µm). (vWF positivity was not detected at day 2 after cell transplantation.)

     

     

    The injected cells survived in the infarction region for at least four weeks after infusion. The infarction volume at 4 weeks post-MCAO was significantly reduced in eMSC transplant recipients relative to that in brains from rats that received only PBS injection. Importantly, post-ischemic behavioral functioning significantly improved in transplant recipients.
    In these experiments, we found that the engrafted cells did not survive beyond ~4 weeks. The loss of transplanted cells from the infarction region after 4 weeks occurred despite the use of cyclosporin A to suppress the immunological response. We are therefore seeking ways to improve engrafted cell survival in order to enhance the neurogenesis and angiogenesis of the transplanted cells and sustain or improve the neurological recovery of the whole animal. Some approaches include pre-conditioning the eMSCs in culture before transplant, engineering the stem cells to produce specific trophic factors, and treating the SH rats with dietary or pharmaceutical supplements before or after MCAO.
    We are also interested in determining whether other stem cell types, including induced pleuripotent (iPS) cells may offer greater neurologic protection or longer post-transplant survival.


    Ongoing Projects:

    • Neuroprotection in transplanting mesenchymal stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia in rats
    • Role of angiogenesis in ischemic pre-conditioning
    • Role of conditioned media of mesenchymal stem cells in Neuroprotection


    Neuroanatomy / Skull Base Laboratory



    Weekly resident training course on microsurgical neuroanatomy and skull base approaches led by Dr. Baskaya takes place in this laboratory.

      

    Ongoing Projects:
    • Microsurgical anatomy of craniofacial approaches
    • Gyral and sulcal variations in the posterior mediobasal temporal region
    • Safe entry zones to the brain stem
    • Gyral and Sulcal anatomy of the orbito frontal cortex with its arterial supply and white matter fiber connections
    • Neurosurgical and neuroradiological anatomy of facial colliculus
    • Neurosurgical anatomy of vestibular area


     



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